An Ecosystem of Stabletokens


In this tutorial, we will explore the concept of stablecoins and their significance within the Celo network. We will review the milestones achieved since the network’s launch, discuss the technical limitations faced, and explore the solutions being implemented to address these challenges. Stablecoins play a crucial role in reducing volatility and enabling global transactions, making them valuable assets within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

The Birth of Celo Network

The Celo network, launched in March 2020, provided a foundation for stablecoins to thrive. During this initial phase, the network’s contracts were deployed, but stablecoins were not yet introduced. Oracles, which report the price of Celo and other external assets, were enabled but remained inactive. Once the network was deemed healthy, cell transfers were enabled, allowing Celo to be traded on centralized exchanges. This marked the first listing of Celo, initially known as Celo Gold. Liquidity gradually began to build in the centralized market.

Understanding Stablecoins

Stablecoins are digital assets designed to track the value of another asset, such as a fiat currency or a cryptocurrency. They serve as a solution to the issue of volatility, making it easier for users to transact and maintain the value of their holdings. Stablecoins can be categorized into different types, including fiat-backed stablecoins and algorithmic stablecoins. Celo operates as a fully decentralized algorithmic stablecoin, utilizing overcollateralization and other existing composability features from other networks.

Importance of Stablecoins

Stablecoins address the barrier of volatility commonly associated with cryptocurrencies, allowing users to transact without the fear of losing value. They have global applicability, enabling cross-border transactions and facilitating access to decentralized finance (DeFi) for individuals who prefer to avoid exposure to highly volatile assets like Bitcoin. Stablecoins also make fiat currencies programmable by leveraging smart contracts, opening up new possibilities for financial innovation.

Milestone: Enabling Celo Dollars

In June 2020, the Celo network achieved a significant milestone by enabling the creation of Celo Dollars. Oracles were activated to report the price of Celo in relation to the US dollar. The network introduced the Celo Stability Protocol, called Mento, which acted as an automated market maker similar to Uniswap. Key parameters of Mento, such as the reserve fraction and spread, were fine-tuned to optimize liquidity and affordability. This milestone marked the birth of the first decentralized exchange (DEX) on Celo, providing users with the ability to mint and burn Celo Dollars.

Expanding Stable Assets

Celo aimed to go beyond a single stable asset and embrace the challenge of supporting multiple stablecoins. By deploying a multi-mento approach, Celo sought to create a diverse ecosystem of independent stablecoins. However, this approach required upgrading the existing smart contracts to support parallel operation of multiple mentos. Additionally, establishing oracles for less liquid markets, such as the Brazilian real, presented engineering challenges. Celo embarked on solving these limitations to enhance the stability and functionality of the network.

Overcoming Technical Limitations

To address the technical limitations and improve the ecosystem, Celo has been actively working on several initiatives. These include:

  • Tooling and Documentation: Celo aims to provide robust tools and documentation for developers to create stable tokens easily, enabling broader participation in the ecosystem.

  • Efficient Oracle Reporting: Celo plans to optimize oracle reporting by implementing a frequency oracle for frequently changing prices and a slower oracle for less volatile assets. This approach reduces block space requirements.

  • Automated Arbitrary Calls: Celo intends to support arbitrary calls to smart contracts in an automated manner, empowering the community to execute transactions seamlessly.

  • On-chain Stable Token Registry: Celo recognized the need for an on-chain stable token registry to facilitate the seamless integration and interoperability of stablecoins within the ecosystem. The registry would act as a central repository of information about stable tokens, allowing users to easily discover and interact with different stablecoin options. This initiative aims to foster a more vibrant and diverse stablecoin ecosystem on Celo.

  • Stability Analysis and Improvements To ensure the stability of stablecoins within the Celo network, continuous analysis and improvements are being made. This includes monitoring and evaluating the collateralization ratios of stablecoins, analyzing the effectiveness of the Celo Stability Protocol, and identifying potential risks and vulnerabilities. By actively assessing and addressing stability concerns, Celo aims to maintain the value and reliability of stablecoins in the ecosystem.

  • Collaboration with External Projects Celo recognizes the value of collaboration with external projects to expand the stablecoin ecosystem and achieve greater adoption. By partnering with projects working on stablecoin infrastructure, interoperability, and liquidity solutions, Celo aims to create synergies and enhance the overall stability and utility of stablecoins within the network.


Stablecoins have emerged as a crucial component within the Celo network, enabling users to transact and store value without being exposed to the volatility of traditional cryptocurrencies. Celo’s journey in building a robust ecosystem of stablecoins has seen significant milestones achieved, technical challenges overcome, and ongoing initiatives to enhance stability, functionality, and interoperability. With a strong focus on collaboration and continuous improvement, Celo aims to create an ecosystem where stablecoins can thrive and serve as a bridge between traditional and decentralized finance.