Cross-Border Payments and Remittances on Celo

Cross-Border Payments and Remittances on Celo
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Cross-border payments and remittances play a crucial role in today’s globalized world. With the advent of blockchain technology, these transactions can be made more efficient, secure, and cost-effective. In this article, we will explore how to create a cross-border payment and remittance application on the Celo blockchain platform, leveraging the power of React for the front end. Celo’s blockchain technology offers scalability, security, and speed, making it an excellent choice for developing decentralized applications (dApps).


To follow along with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of JavaScript, React, and blockchain concepts. Familiarity with web development and npm (Node Package Manager) will also be beneficial.


Development Environment:

  • Node.js and npm: Install Node.js and npm (Node Package Manager) on your system to manage dependencies and run JavaScript code.
  • Code Editor: Choose a code editor of your preference, such as Visual Studio Code, Sublime Text, or Atom, to write your code.

Celo Blockchain Development:

  • Celo Account: Create a Celo blockchain account to interact with the blockchain. You will need a Celo wallet address and private key to sign transactions and interact with smart contracts.
  • Celo Blockchain Testnet: Connect to the Celo blockchain testnet for development and testing purposes. Obtain the testnet URL to communicate with the blockchain network.

React Application Setup:

  • Create React App: Set up a new React project using the Create React App command-line tool or any other preferred method.
  • Dependencies: Install necessary dependencies for React development, such as React, React Router, and Axios, to build the frontend of your application.

Smart Contract Development:

  • Solidity: Learn and understand Solidity, the programming language used to develop smart contracts on the Celo blockchain.
  • Celo SDK: Install the Celo SDK (Software Development Kit) to interact with the Celo blockchain and deploy smart contracts.
  • Smart Contract IDE: Choose a Solidity IDE or editor like Remix, Visual Studio Code with Solidity extensions, or Truffle Suite to write and compile your smart contracts.

Frontend Development:

  • React Components: Design and create React components for the frontend user interface. Implement features such as payment forms, transaction history display, and user authentication.
  • Web3.js: Integrate Web3.js library to interact with the Celo blockchain from the frontend. Use Web3.js to connect to the Celo network, send transactions, and call smart contract functions.

Testing and Deployment:

  • Testing Frameworks: Set up testing frameworks like Jest and React Testing Library to write and run unit tests for your smart contracts and frontend code.
  • Deployment Platform: Choose a deployment platform such as GitHub Pages, Netlify, or Vercel to host and deploy your application for production use.

Documentation and Support:

  • Read Celo Documentation: Refer to the official Celo documentation to understand the platform’s concepts, features, and APIs.
  • Stack Overflow and Forums: Join developer communities and forums like Stack Overflow or Celo’s official forum to seek guidance and support from experienced developers.

Setting Up the Development Environment

Install Node.js and npm:

Ensure that you have Node.js and npm installed on your machine. You can download the latest version of Node.js from the official website ( and follow the installation instructions for your operating system.

Create a new React project:

Open your terminal or command prompt and run the following command to create a new React project:

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npx create-react-app cross-border-payment-app

Navigate to the project directory:

Use the cd command to navigate into the newly created project directory:

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cd cross-border-payment-app

Start the development server:

Run the following command to start the React development server:

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npm start

This will launch the application in your browser, and you will see a “Welcome to React” message.

Installing Required Dependencies

Install the Celo SDK:

In your project directory, run the following command to install the Celo SDK package:

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npm install @celo/contractkit

Install additional dependencies:

Install other required packages by running the following command:

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npm install axios web3 react-bootstrap

These dependencies will be used for interacting with Celo blockchain, making API calls, and enhancing the user interface with Bootstrap components.

Writing the Smart Contract

Create a new file:

In your project directory, create a new file named CrossBorderPayment.sol. This file will contain the smart contract code.

Implement the smart contract:

Write the code for the cross-border payment and remittance smart contract. Here’s a basic example to get started:

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// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

contract CrossBorderPayment {
    mapping(address => uint256) public balances;

    function sendPayment(address recipient, uint256 amount) external {
        require(balances[msg.sender] >= amount, "Insufficient balance");

        balances[msg.sender] -= amount;
        balances[recipient] += amount;

This contract allows users to send payments to other addresses, deducting the amount from their own balance and adding it to the recipient’s balance.

Building the Frontend

Update the App component:

Certainly! Here’s an example code snippet that you can use to update the App component in the src/App.js file of your project:

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import React, { useEffect, useState } from 'react';
import { ContractKit } from '@celo/contractkit';

function App() {
    const [kit, setKit] = useState(null);

    useEffect(() => {
    }, []);

    const initializeCelo = async () => {
        try {
            // Initialize Celo ContractKit with the Celo network URL
            const celoNetworkUrl = '<CELO_NETWORK_URL>'; // Replace with the Celo network URL
            const contractKit = ContractKit.newKit(celoNetworkUrl);
        } catch (error) {
            console.error('Failed to initialize Celo ContractKit:', error);

    const handlePayment = async () => {
        // Implement the payment logic here

    return (
            <h1>Cross-Border Payment and Remittance</h1>
            <button onClick={handlePayment}>Send Payment</button>

export default App;

In this updated App component, we initialize the Celo ContractKit inside the initializeCelo function using the specified Celo network URL.

The useState hook is used to store the ContractKit instance in the kit state.

The handlePayment function is where you can implement the logic for cross-border payments and remittances.

You can add the necessary code to interact with the smart contract, send transactions, and handle payment-related operations.

The return statement renders a simple user interface with an “h1” heading and a “Send Payment” button. You can customize the UI according to your requirements.

Remember to replace <CELO_NETWORK_URL> with the actual Celo network URL you want to connect to. This URL should point to a running Celo blockchain network, such as the Alfajores or Mainnet.

Once you have updated the App component with this code, you can save the file and proceed with further development and testing of your cross-border payment and remittance application on the Celo blockchain using React.

Common errors to avoid

During the process of building your application, here are some common pitfalls to avoid:

  • Lack of Error Handling
  • Insufficient Gas Estimation
  • Inadequate Testing
  • Lack of Input Validation
  • Improper Smart Contract Upgrades
  • Insecure Private Key Handling
  • Ignoring Gas Costs
  • Lack of Documentation


Throughout the article, we covered the steps involved in setting up the development environment, writing a smart contract to handle payments and remittances, and integrating it with the React frontend. By following these steps, developers can start building their own cross-border payment solutions on the Celo blockchain, customized to their specific requirements.

Building cross-border payment and remittance solutions on the Celo blockchain opens up exciting opportunities to revolutionize financial transactions, promote financial inclusion, and create more transparent and accessible financial systems. As you embark on your journey of building cross-border payment and remittance applications on Celo, keep exploring new possibilities, stay updated with advancements in the blockchain space, and continuously refine your skills to create impactful solutions that empower individuals and businesses around the world.

Next Steps

  • Implement User Interface: Enhance the user interface of your application by adding additional components, styling, and user interactions. Consider incorporating features such as transaction history, user authentication, input validation, and error handling.
  • Connect with Celo Blockchain: Utilize the Celo SDK and ContractKit to interact with the Celo blockchain. Implement functionalities such as fetching account balances, retrieving transaction details, and handling smart contract interactions. You can explore sending payments, querying transaction statuses, and retrieving blockchain data.
  • Add Security Measures: Implement security measures to protect sensitive user information and ensure secure transactions. Consider incorporating encryption, secure storage of private keys, and appropriate authentication mechanisms.
  • Test and Debug: Thoroughly test your application to identify and resolve any bugs or issues. Perform unit testing, integration testing, and end-to-end testing to ensure the functionality and reliability of your application.
  • Optimize Performance: Identify areas where you can optimize the performance of your application. Consider techniques such as caching, minimizing network requests, and optimizing smart contract interactions to improve the overall user experience.
  • Deploy to Production: Once you are satisfied with the development and testing of your application, deploy it to a production environment. Choose a hosting platform or cloud service provider to host your application, configure any necessary infrastructure, and ensure that it is accessible to users.
  • Gather User Feedback: Launch your application to a limited group of users or a test audience to gather feedback. Use this feedback to iterate and improve upon your application, addressing any usability issues or feature requests.
  • Continuously Improve and Maintain: Keep up with the latest advancements in Celo blockchain technology, React, and best practices in web development. Stay engaged with the community, contribute to open-source projects, and keep refining and enhancing your application based on user feedback and market trends.


Celo Remittance Payment


Congratulations on being among the top voted proposals this week! This is now approved by @Celo_Academy for you to get started whenever you’d like. :mortar_board: :seedling:


I will be reviewing this.


Add source code repo link in Post


I haven’t got any update


hi, @Kunaldawar I have added the source code repo link for the article above. pls kindly check


i Have fixed your post you are good to go…


Hi @Clue First Here is a big congratulations from me for getting your first published piece on the Academy

I was just reading your article as a reference from Ishan’s newly requested article, and I noticed your codebase in this article compared to the code reference you linked to is quite minimal, basically not the same thing.

  • This article being an intermediate piece, It’s assumed that the reader here clearly knows how to write a basic sendTransaction function,

  • This codebase you have in the GitHub repos seems more precise although somewhat still minimal, but would’ve done just fine in the article and maybe explain precisely what happens in the smart contract.

  • And also for the front-end you have added the article, I couldn’t find it in your repo, perhaps your still working on it? but still, you created quite a minimal frontend app for an intermediate piece, Also you didn’t implement the smart contract functions on the application.

  • I also noticed you made the application in the form of a task for the reader, but do note for the sake of your future tutorials You are teaching your readers, and for an intermediate piece like this one, you are guiding your readers to building a full stack application (supposedly), not give them tasks to do .

Congratulations again on your first article as a Celo Sage member, I hope you find relevance in this correction and adhere to them in your next piece, Meanwhile, you still have access to make the changes I mentioned in this article, Afterall I’m pretty sure you’d want your first piece on the academy published on the internet for the world to be if not your best so far best and to have quite the standard.


Hello @Clue,

The title of this tutorial is cool but some things aren’t that cool. I provide suggestions to you in dm.


I look forward to seeing the author fix the issues you highlighted here.


Nevertheless with the correct, especially this being your first published here on Celo. You really wowed me. I appreciate you.

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Thanks just uploaded the repo code


Nice article here. I discovered inconsistency in the topics case. Some are title case correctly while some done wrongly with no specific case type.

Please implement the logic here

1 Like