Developing a Distributed Identity Management System Using Python and Solidity

Developing a Distributed Identity Management System Using Python and Solidity
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In this tutorial, We’ll walk you through a guide to building a distributed identity management system with Python and Solidity.

You will be given step-by-step instructions on how to set up a development environment, establish the smart contract using Solidity, and interface with it using Python in order to preserve IDs.


To execute the steps and processes outlined in building a Distributed Identity Management System using Python and Solidity, you would benefit from having the following prior knowledge:

  • Programming Fundamentals: A solid understanding of programming concepts, including variables, data types, control flow (conditionals and loops), functions, and error handling.

  • Python: Familiarity with the Python programming language, including syntax, basic data structures (such as lists, dictionaries, and sets), and object-oriented programming (classes, objects, and inheritance). You should also be comfortable working with external libraries and modules using tools like pip for package management.

  • Solidity: Familiarity with Solidity, the programming language for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. Solidity is similar to JavaScript, so experience with JavaScript or other C-like languages would be helpful. Understanding concepts such as variables, functions, events, and mappings in Solidity is crucial.

  • Ethereum and Blockchain Basics: An understanding of blockchain technology and how Ethereum works as a decentralized platform. Knowledge of concepts such as transactions, blocks, gas, wallets, and public/private key cryptography is beneficial.

  • Web Development: Basic knowledge of web development technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is necessary for building frontend interfaces. You should be comfortable creating HTML templates, styling with CSS, and using JavaScript for making HTTP requests and updating the DOM.

  • Backend Development: Understanding how to develop backend applications using Python is important. Knowledge of web frameworks such as Flask or Django, RESTful API design, and database management (e.g., SQL or NoSQL) will be valuable.

  • Testing: Familiarity with testing methodologies and frameworks, such as unit testing and integration testing, is essential for ensuring the quality and correctness of your code. Experience with testing tools like PyTest or frameworks provided by frontend libraries (e.g., React Testing Library) is beneficial.

  • DevOps and Deployment: Basic knowledge of deploying web applications, configuring web servers (e.g., Nginx), and managing infrastructure are useful. Familiarity with Continuous Integration and Deployment (CI/CD) concepts and tools like Jenkins or Docker can help automate the deployment process.

Source code and files for this Tutorial


The following tools and technologies will be required to build Cross-chain Interoperability between Celo and other Blockchain Networks.

  • Jenkins: Jenkins is a popular CI/CD tool used for automating the build, test, and deployment processes. It can be used to set up a continuous integration and deployment pipeline for the project.

  • Nginx: Nginx is a popular web server that can be used to serve the frontend files and proxy requests to the backend server.

  • PyTest: PyTest is a testing framework for Python. It is used for writing and running unit tests and integration tests for the backend code.

  • is a Python library that allows interaction with the Ethereum network. It is used to connect to the Ethereum network, deploy smart contracts, and interact with the deployed contracts from the Python backend.

  • HTML, CSS, and JavaScript: These web technologies are used for frontend development. HTML is used for structuring the web pages, CSS for styling the pages, and JavaScript for implementing dynamic behavior and making HTTP requests to the backend API endpoints.

Instructions for Building a Distributed Identity Management System Using Python and Solidity

To develop a Distributed Identity Management System using Python and Solidity, the following steps and processes are involved:

Step 1: Define Requirements:

Identify the key features you want to include in your system, such as user registration, authentication, authorization, and secure identity data storage.
Determine any specific requirements for privacy, scalability, or interoperability.
Design the System Architecture:

Define the components of your system, such as the blockchain network, smart contracts, backend services, and frontend interfaces. Determine how these components will interact with each other.
Here’s a high-level diagram illustrating the system architecture:


|    Frontend     |
       | HTTP requests
|    Backend      |
       | Smart contract interactions
|  Smart Contracts|
       | Blockchain interactions
|   Blockchain    |

Step 2: Set Up the Development Environment:

  • Install Python and Solidity compiler (solc) for smart contract development.
  • Set up an Ethereum client like Ganache for local development and testing.
  • Install library for interacting with the Ethereum network in Python.

Smart Contract Development:
Write Solidity code for your smart contracts. Here’s an identity contract with registration and authentication functionality:


contract IdentityContract {
    struct User {
        string username;
        string password;

    mapping(address => User) private users;

    function registerUser(string memory _username, string memory _password) public {
        require(bytes(_username).length > 0, "Username must not be empty");
        require(bytes(_password).length > 0, "Password must not be empty");
        require(users[msg.sender].username.length == 0, "User already registered");

        users[msg.sender] = User(_username, _password);

    function authenticateUser(string memory _username, string memory _password) public view returns (bool) {
        require(bytes(_username).length > 0, "Username must not be empty");
        require(bytes(_password).length > 0, "Password must not be empty");

        User memory user = users[msg.sender];
        return (keccak256(bytes(user.username)) == keccak256(bytes(_username)) && keccak256(bytes(user.password)) == keccak256(bytes(_password)));

Step 3: Test and Deploy Smart Contracts:

Write unit tests for your smart contracts using Truffle.
Compile and deploy the smart contracts to the Ethereum network using Ganache or an Ethereum testnet.
Ensure to obtain the contract address and ABI (Application Binary Interface) for interacting with the contracts.

  • Python Backend Development:

Create a Python backend using a web framework like Flask or Django.
Use to interact with the Ethereum network and smart contracts.
Here’s an example of how you can interact with the deployed smart contract using


from web3 import Web3

# Connect to the Ethereum network
w3 = Web3(Web3.HTTPProvider('http://localhost:8545'))

# Load the contract ABI
# Connect to the deployed smart contract
contract_address = '0x1234567890abcdef...'
contract_abi = [
    # Insert the ABI of your smart contract here
contract = w3.eth.contract(address=contract_address, abi=contract_abi)

# Implement backend logic for user registration
def register_user(username, password):
    # Encode the function call to registerUser in the smart contract
    tx_hash = contract.functions.registerUser(username, password).transact()

    # Wait for the transaction to be mined

    # Process the transaction receipt as needed

# Implement backend logic for user authentication
def authenticate_user(username, password):
    # Encode the function call to authenticateUser in the smart contract
    result = contract.functions.authenticateUser(username, password).call()

    # Process the result and return authentication status

# Handle HTTP requests from the frontend and invoke the appropriate backend logic

# Example using Flask framework
from flask import Flask, request, jsonify

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/register', methods=['POST'])
def handle_register():
    username = request.json['username']
    password = request.json['password']

    register_user(username, password)
    return jsonify({'message': 'User registered successfully'})

@app.route('/authenticate', methods=['POST'])
def handle_authenticate():
    username = request.json['username']
    password = request.json['password']

    authenticated = authenticate_user(username, password)
    return jsonify({'authenticated': authenticated})

# Run the Flask application
if __name__ == '__main__':

Step 4: Frontend Development:

a. Design User Interfaces:

We are going to be designing the user interfaces for our system using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
Create screens for user registration, login, profile management, and other identity-related operations, ensuring the interfaces are intuitive, responsive, and visually appealing.

b. Make HTTP Requests:

Using JavaScript’s fetch API or the Axios library to make HTTP requests from the frontend to the backend API endpoints.
Define functions to handle user actions such as registration, login, and profile updates.
Here’s the function to handle user registration using the Fetch API:


function registerUser(username, password) {
    fetch('/register', {
        method: 'POST',
        headers: {
            'Content-Type': 'application/json'
        body: JSON.stringify({ username, password })
    .then(response => response.json())
    .then(data => {
        // Handle the response from the backend
    .catch(error => {
        // Handle any errors
        console.error('Error:', error);

c. Implement User Interfaces and Event Handlers:

Create an HTML templates and style them with CSS according to your design.
Add event listeners and event handlers to capture user actions.
Here’s an example of a basic registration form using HTML and JavaScript:


<form id="registrationForm">
    <input type="text" id="usernameInput" placeholder="Username">
    <input type="password" id="passwordInput" placeholder="Password">
    <button type="submit">Register</button>

    document.getElementById('registrationForm').addEventListener('submit', function(event) {

        const username = document.getElementById('usernameInput').value;
        const password = document.getElementById('passwordInput').value;

        registerUser(username, password);

d. Display API Responses:

Update the user interface to display relevant information returned by the backend API.
Use JavaScript to dynamically update the DOM based on the API responses.
Here’s an example of displaying a success message after successful registration:


.then(data => {
    // Display a success message
    const successMessage = document.createElement('p');
    successMessage.textContent = data.message;

e. Implement Login and Other Functionality:

Follow similar steps to implement user login, profile management, and other identity-related functionality.
Capture user input, make appropriate API requests, and update the frontend interface based on the responses.

f. Test and Refine:

Thoroughly test the frontend interfaces to ensure all user interactions and flows work as intended.
Debug any issues and refine the design and functionality based on user feedback and testing results.
Consider usability testing to gather feedback from users and make necessary improvements.

step 5: Integration Testing with PyTest:



# Import necessary modules and classes
import pytest
from your_app import app

# Define integration test cases
def test_registration():
    client = app.test_client()

    # Simulate registration request
    response ='/register', data={'username': 'testuser', 'password': 'testpass'})

    # Check response status code and content
    assert response.status_code == 200
    assert b"Registration successful" in

def test_login():
    client = app.test_client()

    # Simulate login request
    response ='/login', data={'username': 'testuser', 'password': 'testpass'})

    # Check response status code and content
    assert response.status_code == 200
    assert b"Login successful" in

# Run tests
if __name__ == '__main__':

In the above, we used the PyTest framework to define integration test cases. The tests simulate requests to the registration and login endpoints and verify the expected responses.
Unit Testing with PyTest:



# Import necessary modules and classes
import pytest
from your_app import User

# Define unit test cases
def test_user_creation():
    # Create a user instance
    user = User('testuser', 'testpass')

    # Check user attributes
    assert user.username == 'testuser'
    assert user.password == 'testpass'
    assert user.is_active is True

def test_user_authentication():
    # Create a user instance
    user = User('testuser', 'testpass')

    # Check user authentication
    assert user.authenticate('testpass') is True
    assert user.authenticate('wrongpass') is False

# Run tests
if __name__ == '__main__':

In the above example, we use PyTest to define unit test cases for the User class. We test the creation of a user instance and its authentication method.

Step 6: Deployment and maintenance

Step 6 involves deployment and maintenance, which typically involves configuration and setup rather than writing code.
Deployment Script Example:



# Build frontend code
echo "Building frontend..."
cd frontend
# Run necessary build commands (e.g., npm run build, yarn build)
# Copy the built files to a deployment directory (e.g., /var/www/html)

# Deploy backend code
echo "Deploying backend..."
cd ../backend
# Activate the Python virtual environment (if used)
source venv/bin/activate
# Install dependencies
pip install -r requirements.txt
# Run necessary setup commands (e.g., database migrations)
# Start the backend server (e.g., using gunicorn or uwsgi)

# Configure web server (e.g., Nginx)
echo "Configuring web server..."
# Update the web server configuration file to point to the deployed frontend and backend

# Configure DNS and SSL
echo "Configuring DNS and SSL..."
# Update DNS settings to point the domain to the server's IP address
# Obtain and configure SSL/TLS certificates (e.g., using Let's Encrypt)

# Start the web server
echo "Starting web server..."
# Restart the web server to apply the new configuration

echo "Deployment complete!"

In the above example, the deployment script performs the following steps:

Builds the frontend code and copies the built files to the deployment directory.
Deploys the backend code by installing dependencies, running necessary setup commands (e.g., database migrations), and starting the backend server.
Configures the web server (e.g., Nginx) to point to the deployed frontend and backend.
Configures DNS settings to point the domain to the server’s IP address.
Obtains and configures SSL/TLS certificates (e.g., using Let’s Encrypt) to enable HTTPS communication.
Restarts the web server to apply the new configuration.

Step 7: Automatic Deployment Script

# python


from fabric import Connection

def deploy():
    # Connect to the remote server
    c = Connection('your-server-ip')

    # Update the codebase from the repository'cd /path/to/your/app && git pull origin main')

    # Install or update dependencies'cd /path/to/your/app && pip install -r requirements.txt')

    # Perform necessary database migrations'cd /path/to/your/app && flask db upgrade')

    # Restart the application server'sudo systemctl restart your-app')

# Run the deployment script

The above script uses the Fabric library to automate the deployment process. It connects to the remote server, updates the codebase from the repository, installs or updates dependencies, performs database migrations, and restarts the application server.

  • Database Migration (using Flask-Migrate):
# python


from flask import Flask
from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy
from flask_migrate import Migrate

app = Flask(__name__)
app.config['SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI'] = 'your-database-uri'
db = SQLAlchemy(app)
migrate = Migrate(app, db)

# Your Flask app routes and models

if __name__ == '__main__':

To perform database migrations, you can use Flask-Migrate, which integrates Alembic into Flask applications. After setting up your Flask app and models, you can run the following commands:


# Initialize migration repository
flask db init

# Create an initial migration
flask db migrate -m 'Initial migration'

# Apply the migration
flask db upgrade

Flask-Migrate will generate migration scripts based on changes in your models and apply those changes to the database.

Continuous Integration and Deployment (using a CI/CD tool like Jenkins):
Jenkins is a popular CI/CD tool that allows you to automate the build, test, and deployment processes. Here’s an example Jenkinsfile:

pipeline {
    agent any

    stages {
        stage('Build') {
            steps {
                // Checkout source code from version control
                git 'your-repository-url'

                // Build the frontend code
                sh 'cd frontend && npm install && npm run build'

                // Build the backend code
                sh 'cd backend && pip install -r requirements.txt'

        stage('Test') {
            steps {
                // Run tests for the backend code
                sh 'cd backend && pytest'

        stage('Deploy') {
            steps {
                // Deploy the application
                sh 'cd backend && python'

This Jenkinsfile defines a pipeline with three stages: Build, Test, and Deploy. In the Build stage, it checks out the source code, builds the frontend and backend code, and installs dependencies. In the Test stage, it runs tests for the backend code. In the Deploy stage, it executes the deployment script.


This tutorial discusses the instructions for building a Distributed Identity Management System using Python and Solidity. It covers steps such as defining requirements, designing system architecture, setting up the development environment, writing smart contracts, testing and deploying contracts, backend and frontend development, integration testing, deployment and maintenance, and automatic deployment.

About the Author​

Victor Onuoha is a copywriter and Python, PHP, Go, Solidity, and Web3 Developer. In addition to having a tremendous love for blockchain and its potential to revolutionize the world, I have always been interested by new technologies.

Connect with me on Twitter



Approved for you to get started. You can manage the tutorial here by changing the category to Proposals > In Progress then Proposals > Review as you complete the tutorial. Thanks!

1 Like

Please make this tutorial so that the application is deployed on Celo. Thanks!

I will be reviewing this.

Can you add code for deploying smart contract also add this code repository

@Kunaldawar @Celo_Academy Source code and files

Heyyyy @valor I was about to add your piece to a pathway and I noticed, You added a javascript tag rather than python, I already corrected that but mmake sure to take note in future :clinking_glasses:


A great peice. Thanks.

1 Like

Hi @valor,

Thumbs up for this tutorial. You can improve better in your developer’s journey.