Technical Deep Dive into Stablecoins, Oracles, and the Celo reserve

Technical Deep Dive into Stablecoins, Oracles, and the Celo reserve
none 0.0 0


Welcome to this comprehensive tutorial, where we’ll embark on a technical journey into the heart of Celo’s monetary policy. In the rapidly-evolving world of digital currencies, Celo stands out with its unique economic model, focusing on financial inclusion and decentralization. This tutorial aims to provide you with a deep understanding of this model and its components - CELO, cUSD, cEUR, the Celo Reserve, and Oracles.


Before proceeding with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of:

  • Blockchain technology and smart contracts
  • The Solidity programming language
  • The basics of the Celo platform and its native assets (CELO, cUSD, and cEUR)

You should also have the following:

  • A development environment capable of running Solidity (such as Remix, Truffle, or Hardhat)
  • Node.js and npm installed on your machine
  • The Celo CLI installed on your machine
  • A test wallet with some testnet CELO for gas fees


This tutorial assumes that you have a foundational understanding of blockchain concepts, and you’re comfortable with Solidity development and interacting with the Celo blockchain. If you’re new to these topics, consider reviewing Celo’s official documentation and Solidity’s documentation to familiarize yourself before you proceed.

Understanding Celo’s Economic Model

Celo’s economic model revolves around three native assets - CELO, cUSD, and cEUR. Each asset serves a unique purpose within the ecosystem:

  • CELO: As the utility and governance asset for the Celo ecosystem, CELO is used for transaction fees, participation in the proof-of-stake consensus protocol, and governance voting.

  • cUSD and cEUR: These are Celo’s stablecoins, designed to track the value of the US Dollar and Euro, respectively. They provide a medium of exchange that retains its value over time, which is crucial for financial applications on the blockchain.

Understanding these assets and their interplay is key to comprehending Celo’s monetary policy. They are part of an intricate balance that maintains the stability of the system, allowing Celo to deliver on its promise of financial inclusion.

Inside Celo’s Stablecoins: cUSD and cEUR

Stablecoins play a critical role in the blockchain ecosystem. By pegging their value to a stable asset (like a fiat currency), they provide a refuge from the volatility typical of the crypto markets.

Celo’s cUSD and cEUR are algorithmically stabilized cryptocurrencies pegged to the US Dollar and Euro, respectively. They maintain their peg through a combination of algorithmic adjustments and incentives for market participants.

In simple terms, when demand for cUSD or cEUR increases, new coins are minted and sold to balance the supply and demand. Conversely, when demand decreases, coins are bought back and burnt, reducing the supply in circulation. This mechanism is implemented in the smart contracts that govern these stablecoins.

A very basic representation of a Celo stablecoin contract might look like:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.5.11;

contract CeloStablecoin {
    CeloReserve reserve;
    uint256 public totalSupply;

    constructor(address reserveAddress) public {
        reserve = CeloReserve(reserveAddress);
        totalSupply = 0;

    function mint(address to, uint256 amount) public {
        require(reserve.balance() >= amount, "Insufficient reserve funds");
        totalSupply += amount;
        // More logic for minting the stablecoin

    function burn(uint256 amount) public {
        totalSupply -= amount;
        // More logic for burning the stablecoin

    // Additional logic for transfers, etc.

Please note that this code is not complete or secure; it’s a simplification meant to illustrate the concept of a stablecoin contract. The actual contracts that govern Celo stablecoins are significantly more complex and secure, containing additional logic for managing transfers, maintaining the price peg, and handling various edge cases.

The Role of Celo Oracles

Celo oracles play a vital role in providing real-time price feeds for various assets on the Celo blockchain. These price feeds are crucial for stablecoins, decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols, and other applications that require accurate and up-to-date asset prices.

The Celo oracle system consists of a decentralized network of oracle providers, called “oracles,” that aggregate and validate price data from various sources. These oracles fetch price information from external data providers, such as centralized exchanges or decentralized exchanges (DEXs), and publish the aggregated prices on-chain.

Celo uses a robust mechanism called “SchellingPointOracle” to determine the final price. This mechanism combines cryptographic proofs and economic incentives to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the price data. It allows for decentralized decision-making while mitigating the risks of manipulation or collusion.

Developers can integrate the Celo oracle system into their applications to access reliable and tamper-resistant price feeds. By relying on Celo oracles, developers can create stablecoins pegged to real-world assets, build decentralized lending and borrowing platforms, and implement various DeFi functionalities that require accurate asset prices.

By understanding these concepts and their interactions, developers can leverage stablecoins, oracles, and the Celo reserve to build innovative financial applications and contribute to the growing ecosystem on the Celo blockchain.

Let’s take a closer look at the oracles currently operating on the Celo network:

  • Celo Reserve Oracles: These oracles provide information about the reserves backing Celo’s stablecoins. This includes information such as the current amount of assets in reserve, which is critical for maintaining the peg of the stablecoins.

  • RedStone Oracles: RedStone is an oracle provider that delivers real-time data feeds to blockchains. In the context of Celo, RedStone oracles could provide data like price feeds, which are important for financial applications and maintaining stablecoins.

  • Band Protocol: Band Protocol is a cross-chain data oracle platform that aggregates and connects real-world data and APIs to smart contracts. On Celo, Band Protocol can provide various types of data needed by smart contracts.

  • Pyth Network: Pyth Network is a specialized oracle solution designed to provide high-frequency and high-accuracy data for decentralized applications (dApps). In Celo, this could include financial market data, trading data, and more.

  • Witnet: Witnet is a decentralized oracle network that connects smart contracts to any online data source. Smart contracts on Celo can request data from Witnet, which retrieves the data in a decentralized and trustless way.

The Celo Reserve: The Backbone of Stability

Celo’s stability mechanism is backed by the Celo Reserve - a smart contract that holds a diversified and evolving basket of cryptocurrencies. It absorbs fluctuations in demand for cUSD and cEUR, and serves as the last line of defense in maintaining their stability.

In principle, the Celo Reserve is an automated market maker (AMM) that can mint and burn stablecoins in response to changes in demand. However, unlike traditional AMMs, it doesn’t hold a constant amount of value. Instead, the Celo Reserve’s value can increase or decrease based on the performance of its assets and the amount of stablecoins in circulation.

Here’s a very basic representation of how a Celo Reserve contract might look:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.5.11;

contract CeloReserve {
    address[] public assets;
    mapping(address => uint256) public balances;

    function addAsset(address asset) public {
        // Logic for adding an asset to the reserve

    function removeAsset(address asset) public {
        // Logic for removing an asset from the reserve

    function balance() public view returns (uint256 totalBalance) {
        for (uint i = 0; i < assets.length; i++) {
            totalBalance += balances[assets[i]];

    // Additional logic for managing reserve assets

Again, this is a basic illustrative example and not a functional contract. The real Celo Reserve contract contains much more logic for managing the reserve assets, dealing with emergencies, maintaining the correct collateralization ratio, and so on.

Role of Oracles in Celo’s Monetary Policy

In the context of blockchains and smart contracts, an Oracle is an entity that provides external data to the blockchain. For Celo’s monetary policy, Oracles provide crucial information - the price of the stablecoins in relation to their pegs.

Oracles play an essential role in maintaining the stability of Celo’s stablecoins by providing accurate, up-to-date price feeds. These feeds enable Celo’s protocol to adjust the supply of stablecoins, maintaining their peg to the US Dollar and Euro.

Here’s a basic example of how an Oracle contract might look:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.5.11;

contract CeloOracle {
    uint256 public price;

    function updatePrice(uint256 newPrice) public {
        // Logic for updating the price

    function getPrice() public view returns (uint256) {
        return price;

    // Additional logic for managing price updates

This code is a simplification and doesn’t include any security measures. In a real-world scenario, the Oracle contract would have several safeguards in place to verify the price data, handle updates from multiple sources, and maintain a high level of security.

Practical Applications: Building on Celo’s Monetary Policy

Understanding Celo’s monetary policy and the functioning of its components enables developers to build sophisticated, robust financial solutions. As a developer, you could create a decentralized application (DApp) that uses cUSD or cEUR for transactions, or build a service that interacts with the Celo Reserve or utilizes Oracle data for financial operations.

Consider the case of a decentralized lending platform on Celo. This platform could allow users to deposit CELO and borrow cUSD or cEUR against their deposits. Here’s an example of a simplified contract for such a platform:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

interface CeloStablecoin {
    // Interface for Celo stablecoin contract methods

interface CeloOracle {
    // Interface for Celo oracle contract methods

contract LendingPlatform {
    CeloStablecoin public stablecoin;
    CeloOracle public oracle;
    mapping(address => uint256) public deposits;

    constructor(address stablecoinAddress, address oracleAddress) {
        stablecoin = CeloStablecoin(stablecoinAddress);
        oracle = CeloOracle(oracleAddress);

    function depositCELO(uint256 amount) public {
        // Logic for depositing CELO and crediting the user

    function borrow(uint256 amount) public {
        // Logic for borrowing cUSD/cEUR against the user's deposits

    // Additional logic for your DApp

Remember, this is a basic example and not a fully functional contract. Building a real-world lending platform would involve a lot more considerations, such as handling liquidations, calculating interest rates, and ensuring the safety and security of the user funds.


This tutorial was designed to provide a deep technical understanding of Celo’s monetary policy, focusing on its native assets, the Celo Reserve, and Oracles. We hope this knowledge inspires you to explore Celo’s codebase further and build innovative solutions that contribute to Celo’s mission of financial inclusion.

(Note: All solidity contract examples provided are simplified to illustrate the concepts and should not be used as is for any production-grade application without additional security measures, testing, and auditing.)

What’s Next

After completing this tutorial, you’re encouraged to explore other aspects of Celo’s platform. This could include:

  • Diving deeper into Celo’s protocol contracts and exploring other modules
  • Learning more about building dApps on Celo
  • Understanding the verification and attestation services in Celo
  • Exploring the Celo SDK and building your own decentralized applications



This appears to be a tutorial so I removed the pathway tag.


Hi @Elijah007 - this tutorial has received a high number of votes so I’d like to approve it. Can you revise the description so that it meets our guidelines to help developers build on Celo?


Hi @Celo_Academy it’s an honor to have this topic highlighted for approval. I’ve revised the description following the guideline. Kindly review it and let me know what you think.


Thank you @Elijah007. I updated the title as well. Please ensure to include technical depth rather than a high level overview as we already have information on this topic. Thank you!

1 Like

Just seeing you changed the topic. I’ve moved on to adjust the description too. Let me know what you think. Thanks! @Celo_Academy


I’ll be reviewing this @Elijah007


Hi, kindly explain more about on-chain oracles available on Celo oracles. You can refer the Celo documentation, also the stablecoin GitHub repo

1 Like

Just did that. Let me know what you think.


Okay, you can move to publish


Hey @Elijah007 can you provide the links for each thing presented here

Hi @ishan.pathak2711 I added all references and repo on the “references” section.


@ishan.pathak2711 what do you think?

Hey, thank you for revealing this information. I was researching the oracle to use in my projects but this has just helped me figure out how Celo aggregate price oracle in here. Nice one here.


I would like @Jorshimayor to take one final look

1 Like

You have some reasonable knowledge of Celo native assets. :+1: