Using the Celo Blockchain for Microtransactions

Using the Celo Blockchain for Microtransactions
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This tutorial is a guide for developers who want to learn how to use the Celo blockchain for microtransactions. Using Solidity and JavaScript we will demonstrate how to create and interact with smart contracts that facilitate microtransactions on the Celo network. The tutorial provides a step-by-step instructions on how to set up a Celo wallet, send and receive microtransactions, and integrate microtransactions into a dApp.


To begin, you should know the following to an extent

  • Blockchain Fundamentals: Understand the basic concepts and principles of blockchain technology, including decentralized networks, consensus mechanisms, smart contracts, and transaction verification.

  • Blockchain Development Tools: Familiarize yourself with tools specific to Celo blockchain development, such as the Celo Wallet app, Celo’s JavaScript development kit (web3.js), and blockchain explorers to monitor transactions and contract interactions.

  • Security Best Practices: Understand the importance of security in blockchain applications. Learn about common security vulnerabilities, such as reentrancy attacks, and implement best practices like input validation, access control, and secure transaction handling.

  • Web Development: Proficiency in web development technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is essential to build the user interface (UI) for interacting with the microtransaction functionality. Understanding concepts like event handling, DOM


In using the Celo blockchain for microtransactions the following are required:

  • Celo Wallet: The Celo Wallet app, which can be downloaded from mobile app stores, is used to create and manage Celo wallets.

  • HTML, CSS, and JavaScript: These web development technologies are used to implement the user interface (UI) for interacting with the microtransaction functionality.

  • web3.js: Celo’s JavaScript development kit, web3.js, is used to interact with the Celo blockchain. It allows you to obtain Celo assets, check balances, and send transactions.

  • Remix IDE and Truffle: Remix IDE and Truffle are tools used for compiling and deploying smart contracts to the Celo network.

  • AWS, Azure, Netlify: These hosting platforms can be used to deploy and host the user interface.

Guide to Using the Celo blockchain for microtransactions

Step 1: Seting Up a Celo Wallet and Obtaining Celo Assets:

Choose a Celo wallet and create a new wallet. For example, if you’re using the Celo Wallet app, you can download it from your mobile app store and follow the on-screen instructions to set up your wallet.

Obtain Celo Assets:
To obtain Celo assets, you can use Celo’s JavaScript development kit (web3.js) or other libraries that interact with the Celo blockchain. Here’s an example using web3.js to check your CELO balance:

const Web3 = require('web3');
const web3 = new Web3('<YOUR_CELO_NODE_URL>');

async function getCELOBalance(walletAddress) {
  const celoBalance = await web3.eth.getBalance(walletAddress);
  console.log(`CELO balance: ${web3.utils.fromWei(celoBalance)} CELO`);

// Call the function with your wallet address

Connect Your Wallet:
Connecting your Celo wallet depends on the platform or application you’re using. Here’s an example using web3.js to connect to a DApp:


const Web3 = require('web3');
const web3 = new Web3(window.celo);

// Request user account access
const requestAccount = async () => {
  await window.celo.enable();
  const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
  const selectedAddress = accounts[0];
  console.log(`Connected with address: ${selectedAddress}`);

// Call the function to request account access

Step 2: Implement Smart Contracts

Using Solidity, the programming language for writing smart contracts on the Celo network, you can implement the tipping functionality. Here’s an example contract:


// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

contract TippingContract {
  mapping(address => uint256) public balances;

  function tipCreator(address creator, uint256 amount) public {
    balances[creator] += amount;

  function getBalance(address creator) public view returns (uint256) {
    return balances[creator];

Interact with the Celo Network:
Use your wallet to interact with the deployed smart contract. Here’s an example using web3.js to send a tipping transaction:


const Web3 = require('web3');
const web3 = new Web3('<YOUR_CELO_NODE_URL>');

async function tipCreator(contractAddress, creatorAddress, amount) {
  const tippingContract = new web3.eth.Contract(TippingContractABI, contractAddress);
  const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
  const sender = accounts[0];

  const tx = tippingContract.methods.tipCreator(creatorAddress, amount);
  const encodedTx = tx.encodeABI();

  const gasPrice = await web3.eth.getGasPrice();
  const gasLimit = await tx.estimateGas({ from: sender });

  const signedTx = await web3.eth.accounts.signTransaction(
from: sender,
to: contractAddress,
data: encodedTx,
gas: gasLimit,
gasPrice: gasPrice,

 const receipt = await web3.eth.sendSignedTransaction(signedTx.rawTransaction);
 console.log(`Transaction hash: ${receipt.transactionHash}`);

// Call the function to send a tipping transaction

Step 3: Implement User Interface (UI)

Develop a user interface to allow users to interact with the microtransaction functionality. This can be done using web development technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. You can use libraries like React or Angular for building a dynamic UI.

//HTML (index.html):


<!DOCTYPE html>
  <title>Celo Microtransactions UI</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="styles.css">
  <h1>Celo Microtransactions UI</h1>

    <label for="recipientAddress">Recipient Address:</label>
    <input type="text" id="recipientAddress" placeholder="Enter recipient address">

    <label for="transactionAmount">Transaction Amount:</label>
    <input type="number" id="transactionAmount" placeholder="Enter transaction amount">

  <button id="sendTransactionButton">Send Transaction</button>

  <div id="transactionStatus"></div>

  <script src="app.js"></script>
//CSS (styles.css):

body {
  font-family: Arial, sans-serif;

h1 {
  color: #333;

div {
  margin-bottom: 10px;

label {
  font-weight: bold;

input[type="number"] {
  padding: 5px;
  border: 1px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 3px;

button {
  padding: 8px 15px;
  background-color: #4CAF50;
  color: #fff;
  border: none;
  border-radius: 3px;
  cursor: pointer;

#transactionStatus {
  margin-top: 10px;
//JavaScript (app.js):


document.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', function() {
  const sendTransactionButton = document.getElementById('sendTransactionButton');
  const recipientAddressInput = document.getElementById('recipientAddress');
  const transactionAmountInput = document.getElementById('transactionAmount');
  const transactionStatusDiv = document.getElementById('transactionStatus');

  sendTransactionButton.addEventListener('click', function() {
    const recipientAddress = recipientAddressInput.value;
    const transactionAmount = transactionAmountInput.value;

    // Validate user inputs
    if (recipientAddress === '' || transactionAmount === '') {
      transactionStatusDiv.innerText = 'Please provide recipient address and transaction amount.';

    // Perform microtransaction logic here
    // For example, use web3.js to initiate the transaction

    // Display transaction status
    transactionStatusDiv.innerText = 'Transaction sent successfully!';

Step 4: Connect UI with Smart Contract

Integrate the UI with the deployed smart contract to enable users to initiate microtransactions. You can use web3.js or other Celo-compatible libraries to interact with the contract from the UI. Here we would be using web3 to send a tipping transaction from our web application:


import Web3 from 'web3';

const web3 = new Web3(window.celo);

// Load the tipping contract ABI and address
const tippingContractABI = require('./TippingContractABI.json');
const contractAddress = '<CONTRACT_ADDRESS>';
const tippingContract = new web3.eth.Contract(tippingContractABI, contractAddress);

async function tipCreator(creatorAddress, amount) {
  const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
  const sender = accounts[0];

  await tippingContract.methods.tipCreator(creatorAddress, amount).send({ from: sender });

  console.log('Tip sent successfully!');

// Example usage
const creatorAddress = '<CREATOR_ADDRESS>';
const amount = '<TIP_AMOUNT>';

tipCreator(creatorAddress, amount);

Step 5: Handle Transaction Confirmation

To handle transaction confirmation and provide feedback to the user, we can utilize event listeners or web3.js methods to detect when a transaction is confirmed. Here’s how to update the transaction status with a confirmation message when a transaction is successfully mined:

// Inside the click event listener for the "Send Transaction" button
sendTransactionButton.addEventListener('click', async function() {
  // ...

  try {
    // Perform microtransaction logic here

    // Send the transaction
    const transaction = await tippingContract.methods.tipCreator(recipientAddress, transactionAmount).send({ from: sender });

    // Get the transaction hash
    const transactionHash = transaction.transactionHash;

    // Display confirmation message
    transactionStatusDiv.innerText = `Transaction sent successfully! Transaction Hash: ${transactionHash}`;

    // Subscribe to transaction confirmation
    const confirmationSubscription = web3.eth.subscribe('logs', {
      address: contractAddress,
      topics: [web3.utils.sha3('Transfer(address,address,uint256)')]

    confirmationSubscription.on('data', function(log) {
      // Check if the transaction matches the recipient address and amount
      const isConfirmed = log.topics[1] === web3.utils.padLeft(recipientAddress, 64) &&
                          log.topics[2] === web3.utils.padLeft(web3.utils.numberToHex(transactionAmount), 64);

      if (isConfirmed) {
        // Update the transaction status with confirmation message
        transactionStatusDiv.innerText = `Transaction confirmed! Transaction Hash: ${transactionHash}`;
        // Unsubscribe from further confirmation events
  } catch (error) {
    // Handle transaction errors
    transactionStatusDiv.innerText = `Transaction failed: ${error.message}`;

Step 6: Implement Error Handling

To implement error handling, you can catch exceptions thrown during transaction processing and display informative error messages to guide users. Here’s an example of how you can handle and display errors:

// Inside the click event listener for the "Send Transaction" button
sendTransactionButton.addEventListener('click', async function() {
  // ...

  try {
    // Perform microtransaction logic here
  } catch (error) {
    // Handle transaction errors
    transactionStatusDiv.innerText = `Transaction failed: ${error.message}`;

Step 7: Test and Debug

a. Write Unit Tests:
we can use testing frameworks such as Mocha or Jest to write unit tests for our smart contracts and any relevant JavaScript code. Focus on testing critical functionalities, edge cases, and input validation. Here’s an example using Mocha and Chai:

// Example test file using Mocha and Chai
const { expect } = require('chai');

describe('Microtransaction', function () {
  it('should perform a microtransaction successfully', async function () {
    // Test your microtransaction logic here
    // Assert the expected behavior using expect() statements

  it('should handle error scenarios correctly', async function () {
    // Test error handling cases, such as insufficient funds or invalid inputs
    // Assert the expected error messages or behavior

b. Use Testnets:
Deploy your smart contracts and test them on Celo’s testnets (e.g., Alfajores, Baklava) to simulate real-world conditions without using real funds. Interact with the contracts using tools like Truffle and perform comprehensive testing to ensure the contracts function as intended.

c. Test Error Handling:
Validate the error handling mechanism in your user interface. Test scenarios that can result in errors, such as incorrect inputs or network failures, and ensure that appropriate error messages are displayed to users.

d. Debugging:
Use debugging tools, such as console logs or developer tools in your browser, to identify and debug issues. Monitor the flow of data and execution, inspect variables, and troubleshoot any unexpected behavior or errors.

e. User Acceptance Testing (UAT):
Conduct UAT with a small group of users or stakeholders. Gather feedback on the user interface, evaluate its usability, and identify any potential issues or improvements.

Step 8: Deploy and Publish

a. Choose a Hosting Platform:
Select a hosting platform that supports the technologies you used to develop your user interface. Popular options include AWS, Azure, Netlify, GitHub Pages, or any other platform suitable for hosting web applications. Consider factors such as pricing, scalability, performance, and integration options.

b. Build and Bundle:
Ensure your code is ready for deployment by building and bundling it into a production-ready format. Use tools like webpack, Parcel, or any build tool specific to your chosen frontend framework. These tools optimize your code, bundle assets, and generate a deployable build folder or package.

c. Configure Deployment Settings:
Set up the necessary configurations specific to your chosen hosting platform. This may include creating a project or application, configuring environment variables, specifying deployment paths, or defining build scripts.

d. Deploy the User Interface:
Follow the deployment process provided by your hosting platform to deploy your user interface. This could involve uploading files, connecting to version control systems, running deployment scripts, or using deployment-specific tools.

e. Verify Deployment:
After deploying your user interface, verify that it is accessible and functions correctly. Test different features, perform transactions, and validate the user interface’s behavior across various devices, browsers, and screen sizes.

f. Custom Domain Setup (if applicable):
If you have a custom domain, configure it to point to your deployed user interface. Follow the instructions provided by your hosting platform to set up custom domain mapping, DNS configuration, SSL certificates, or any other required steps.

g. Monitor and Update:
Continuously monitor your deployed user interface for any issues or errors. Set up error tracking, logging, or analytics tools to gather insights and identify potential areas for improvement. Regularly update your user interface with bug fixes, security patches, or feature enhancements as needed.


This tutorial has provided us a step-by-step instructions for using the Celo blockchain for microtransactions. It covers setting up a Celo wallet, obtaining Celo assets, connecting your wallet, implementing smart contracts using Solidity, interacting with the Celo network, implementing a user interface, connecting the UI with smart contracts, handling transaction confirmation, implementing error handling, testing and debugging, and finally deploying and publishing the application. The guide includes code snippets and examples using technologies such as Celo’s web3.js library, Solidity, JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and various development tools and frameworks.

Source code for Tutorial

About the Author​

Chidi Anachebe is a content producer and a backend engineer skilled in Solidity, web3, Ruby, Python, and Node.js. Overall, I’m enthusiastic about the opportunities that blockchain technology presents and am committed to use my abilities to contribute to any technology I lay my hands on in a positive way.

Connect with me on Twitter



i wil review it in one or two days


Could you please correct the formatting of your tutorial?

And show in your tutorial how to run the codes from your repository?


Hi @itxtoledo quick question
Have you reviewed a piece before ?
Prior this one :upside_down_face:?


Good morning my friend! Of course, I’ve already reviewed over 10 articles that were on trello.

I saw that you corrected the formatting of the topics in your text, perfect, but imagining that this is a newer user who will read it, I think there is still a small text missing teaching how to execute each piece of code, what do you think?


Yes such changes would be helpful


That’s awesome :clinking_glasses:

Just wanted to be sure, Hadn’t seen the name reviewing before


Looks like he won’t answer @ishan.pathak2711


@itxtoledo I’ve taken care of the formats


I didn’t understand, I think if I am not wrong, you were mentioning that he was not active, but I am able to see that he replied, make sure to check the changes before moving it in publish section

Thank you


@ishan.pathak2711 @itxtoledo I’m done already


I believe it is plausible to be approved


Can you remove the top paragraph used for the proposal and first header that duplicates the title from the post. Thanks! :pray:


@Celo_Academy I’ve done that


Well done @Chidal


U are doing well @Chidal


Nice one sir. Looking forward to more contents frim you.

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Good job boss. Well Done

1 Like